Text Size

Choose Life: The Sacred Value of Human Life and the Evil of Promoting Abortion

 

Choose Life
 
The Sacred Value of Human Life and the Evil of Promoting Abortion

 

 
30 November 1997

 

 

 

 

This is one of the most comprehensive Pastoral Letters that the Catholic Bishops of Zambia have written on the sanctity of human life. They state clearly the basis of the Catholic Church’s stance regarding, not only abortion, but also contraception, and the use of condoms.

The Bishops re-assert the Church’s teaching by expressing compassion to those who commit these acts. They say it is not up to them to judge. They understand the ‘perplexing circumstances’ that often drive young people to seek an abortion. Their stance however is that in spite of these social difficulties, abortion is not the answer. Rather, our society should tackle the root causes of these social problems. They call upon all people of good will to ‘choose life’ over the ‘culture of death’.

To all Catholic Christians and to all people of good will in Zambia: we greet you warmly as we begin the joyful season of Advent and prepare for the celebration of the birth of our Saviour at Christmas.

Introduction

    We, the Bishops of Zambia, as pastoral leaders and concerned citizens, wish to affirm in the strongest possible terms the unique value of every human life. As Africans, we celebrate new life. In the words of Pope John Paul II, "In African culture and tradition, the role of the family is everywhere held to be fundamental. Open to this sense of the family, of love and respect for life, the African loves children who are joyfully welcomed as gifts of God. The peoples of Africa respect the life, which is conceived and born. They rejoice in this life. They reject the idea that it can be destroyed, even when the so-called "progressive civilisations" would like to lead them in this direction.
  1. It is precisely for this reason that we condemn the killing of innocent human life through abortion. This is certainly a relatively new phenomenon in our African society in which human life in the womb has always been welcomed with such joy. Consequently, our primary purpose in writing this letter at this particular time is to express to all Zambian citizens our grave concern over the practice of abortion in our Country and to focus very specifically on the evil of abortion. This concern is all the more alarming in view of an on-going advocacy for `safe’ abortion. Indeed, the acceptance of abortion sets in motion an anti-life mentality that can easily lead on the one hand to infanticide with respect to deformed or handicapped infants, and on the other hand to euthanasia with respect to the elderly and the infirm.
  2. Human life is a precious gift from God, the source of all life. In the Book of Genesis, we read about creation: "God saw all God had made and indeed it was very good" (Genesis 1:31). The last and the highest form of life that God created was human life. "Let us make human beings in our own image, in the likeness of ourselves" (Genesis 1:26). The Psalmist is even more explicit with reference to unborn life: "It was you [God] who created my inmost self, and put me together in my mother’s womb." (Psalm 139: 13). Consequently, every human life is sacred and demands the greatest respect and protection at every stage of development. Among the commandments given to Moses was: "You shall not kill" (Exodus 20:13; Deuteronomy 5:17). This is a commandment, which has been fully endorsed by Jesus himself (Mark 10:19; Matthew 19:18; Luke 18:20). And we are mindful of the covenant that God made with us: "I call heaven and earth to witness against you today: I set before you life or death, blessing or curse. Choose life, then, so that you and your descendants may live in the love of Yahweh your God, obeying God’s voice, clinging to God. (Deuteronomy 30:19)
  3. Choose life and not death! God calls us to protect and preserve human life both before and after birth. Indeed, we rejoice to find that this Christian teaching is also built into the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child to which Zambia is a signatory and which clearly states: "The laws of the State must protect children before and after they are born." God has entrusted human beings with the marvellous procreative capacity to bring new human life into existence and we are held responsible to God for the manner in which we exercise this power.

    The Beginning of Human Life

  4. It is the teaching of the Catholic Church that human life begins from the moment of conception. "From the time that the ovum is fertilised, a life is begun which is neither that of the father nor of the mother; it is rather the life of a new human being with its own growth. It would never be made human if it were not human already." And again, we read: "Human life must be respected and protected absolutely from the moment of conception."
  5. Unborn human life (whether identified as an embryo or a foetus at different stages of development) is frequently referred to in terms which suggest that we are only dealing with "a lump of tissue", "a cluster of cells", "uterine contents" or "products of conception" rather than a human life. Inhumane and cruel practices are far easier to carry out if the victim is dehumanised and depersonalised through the misuse of such language.
  6. The Termination of Pregnancy Act in Zambia was introduced in 1972. By legalising abortion, Zambian society was in effect saying that it is an acceptable solution to an "unwanted" pregnancy. It can therefore seem that abortion is the responsible and necessary procedure to follow and that it is morally permissible. Even more than that, not having an abortion in difficult circumstances is often presented as the immoral option. This is not the case. We wish to state very clearly that induced and directly intended abortion is morally evil and contrary to Christian teaching.

    Compassion and Concern

  7. The Lord Jesus spent his public life going about doing good, healing, forgiving, comforting and showing compassion and concern for all forms of human suffering. He did not come to condemn people. At the same time, he openly confronted the evils that oppress people. Following the example of our Lord, we wish to express our compassion and concern for those numerous women and girls who find themselves facing difficult choices regarding their pregnancies.
  8. We do not judge those who feel driven to destroy their own babies under pressure from various sources. We understand the perplexing circumstances in which teenagers in particular may find themselves. They need help, support and understanding. As we said in another pastoral letter: "We know that decisions that lead people to act against life sometimes arise from difficult or even tragic situations of profound suffering, loneliness, a total lack of economic prospects, depression and anxiety about the future." At the same time, we wish to state clearly and unambiguously that we do not in any way condone acts of sexual permissiveness in teenagers nor do we condone the acts of abortion, which so frequently result from such activities.

    Abortion

  9. Abortion is medically defined as the termination of a pregnancy, either spontaneously (miscarriage) or by intervention (induced) before the foetus is capable of surviving outside the womb. Morally, abortion is the direct and deliberate killing of unborn human life.
  10. The evil and the horror of abortion become all the more apparent when a surgical abortion is performed at later stages of the development of the conceptus (the human life that has been conceived). It is not our intention here to enter into a description of the more gruesome details of what takes place in the process of a clinical abortion. Indeed, doctors themselves tend to be reluctant to disclose to patients the precise details of the procedures to be followed. One method of surgical invasion is "dilation and curettage" (D & C) in which the cervix is dilated and the uterus scraped so that the conceptus can be removed. Another similar method is "suction and curettage" (S & C) in which a suction apparatus is used to remove the conceptus. The head of the conceptus may have to be crushed if it is too large to be sucked out of the uterus. The most extreme form of abortion is a late-term abortion called "partial-birth abortion" which takes place during delivery and during which the brain of the conceptus is sucked out and the head is crushed. We note that failure to give adequate information to women about the nature of the conceptus and of the surgical procedures to be followed when they request an abortion is a serious infringement of their rights.

    Contraceptives versus Abortifacients

  11. Information on abortion is frequently concealed from women by the misuse of the term "contraceptive". A contraceptive means some mechanism (such as a male or female condom) or some substance (such as a drug, a spermicide or an ovulation suppressor) which may be used to prevent conception from taking place. Hence, it acts "contra" (against) conception. Such a procedure acts before conception and may prevent a male sperm and a female ovum from uniting so that conception does not take place after sexual intercourse.
  12. On the other hand, there are other mechanical devices and substances which act after conception has taken place and either destroy the conceptus or prevent it from being implanted in the womb thereby resulting in the death of the conceptus. Such methods include the morning after pill and RU486, which are abortifacients. "Safe Plan", injectables, implants and IUDs (intra uterine devices) may also be abortifacients because, in the event of conception having taken place, they may prevent the conceptus from being implanted in the womb and prevent the survival of the conceptus.
  13. Contraceptives in the "strict" sense which act before conception has taken place must be understood in a different category from abortion-inducing methods which act after conception has taken place. We have in an earlier pastoral letter referred to the danger of the "contraceptive mentality", which "encourages the understanding of the sexual act outside of the context of the human and Christian love of marriage and which so easily leads to the abortion mentality." Abortion itself, however, is an evil on a completely different level from that of "strict" contraception. Whether it be surgical abortion as referred to in section 11 above, or the use of abortifacients as described in section 13 above, the fact is that surgical abortion and abortifacients destroy human life after it has been conceived whereas strict contraception prevents life from being conceived.

    "Unwanted" Pregnancies

  14. It is a well-known fact that the problem of so-called "unwanted" pregnancies is widespread throughout Zambia today. We draw attention, however, to the fact that the misuse of the word "unwanted" is very misleading. An "unplanned" or "unintended" pregnancy is not necessarily an "unwanted" pregnancy. Given the proper kind of positive counselling, many women can be encouraged to "want" to keep their babies.

    Causes Leading to Abortion

  15. There are many causes for the sad development of "unwanted" pregnancies in our Country. Among these causes can be mentioned poverty, lack of proper sexual education and appropriate counselling, greater permissiveness among the young, the failure of a chosen method of contraception, the breakdown of traditional family values, the weakening of religious and moral values, and lack of respect for women.
  16. We are well aware of the manner in which so many young girls find themselves becoming pregnant in circumstances over which they often have little control and having often experienced abuse and exploitation. As a result, due to lack of understanding, fear of perceived unfair consequences from their parents, teachers, Churches or peers, and due to lack of proper counselling and support to bring their babies to term, they resort to abortion. In many cases, they use unhygienic methods of abortion either by themselves or through unqualified practitioners. This can result in ruining their own health as well as destroying the lives of their unborn babies. Some even resort to dumping their babies once born.
  17. In speaking of the causes of social problems in Zambia, we do not accept the bold statement that poverty is caused by population growth and the low usage of contraceptives and abortifacients. We believe rather that poverty is one of the main causes that pressurises the resort to abortions. It is widely recognised that the relationship between declining fertility and economic development is one of mutual interaction. Declining fertility is also the result of economic development and not simply its cause. Money expended on population control through promoting methods of abortion would be far more beneficial to the people of Zambia if directed towards eradicating poverty, increasing educational opportunities for girls, and the girl child in particular, and through investing in health centres for the promotion of the health of pregnant women.

    The Rights of Women

  18. In case we might be misunderstood, we wish to state that we wholeheartedly endorse any programme which aims at recognising the full rights of women. We take seriously the Scriptural teaching that all persons, male and female, are created in the image and likeness of God (Genesis 1:26). Moreover, Pope John Paul II is quite explicit on the essential equality of women with men: "In creating the human race "male and female", God gives man and woman an equal personal dignity, endowing them with inalienable rights and responsibilities proper to the human person." He goes on to say that the [African] Synod "deplored those African customs and practices which deprive women of their rights and the respect due to them and asked the Church on the Continent to make every effort to foster the safeguarding of these rights."
  19. We further consider that the life and health of women are of central importance to the future development of our Nation. Indeed, we firmly believe that it is largely due to the fact that women are being denied their basic human rights that the problem of abortions has increased.
  20. Due to numerous factors which highlight the oppressed situation of women in our society, our women and young girls find themselves in situations where abortion seems to be the only option they have. In so many cases, the men (such as "sugar daddies") who are equally responsible with women for bringing about a pregnancy either shun their responsibility or pressurise the woman to destroy the human life she has conceived. In other words, women do not often feel they have a real choice in the case of an "unwanted" pregnancy.
  21. Unless we change the conditions of poverty, exploitation and lack of educational and medical benefits for women, we will not succeed in removing the causes which result in the need for abortions. We place strong emphasis on the promotion of the rights of women which we have written about as follows in an earlier pastoral letter: "The oppression of women in the family, the injustices done to widows, the high incidence of female illiteracy, the exploitation of women for sexual favours, the violence done to women: all these are signs of denial of basic human rights, an injustice which cries out to our Creator. We urge the Government to take stronger action to promote the rightful development of women in Zambia. One effective strategy toward achieving that goal would be to promote equal opportunity for women to be represented at decision-making levels. We also pledge Church action to educate our members to a more correct view of women and to actively redress the injustices done to women in Church, State and family life."

    The Rights of the Unborn

  22. The primary right of the unborn, and that which underlies every other right, is the right to life. This is a right, which belongs to every human being precisely because they are human. It is a right, which it is all the more necessary to protect fully and effectively in the case of innocent and defenceless unborn life.
  23. The right of the unborn child to life is frequently dismissed or overridden by reference to the right of the mother to life and health. However, the vast majority of cases in which abortions are carried out do not, in fact, fit into this category. The direct and deliberate killing of unborn human life cannot be justified. A doctor must always strive to save the lives of both the unborn child and the mother.
  24. A woman indeed has a right to the control of her fertility but this is a right that needs to be exercised before she has conceived a new life. A baby is not the property of its mother despite its dependence on its mother for survival. There was a time indeed when women were considered to be the property of their husbands. How clearly we can see this injustice now! We must move against any programme, whether it be slavery, family relationships or abortion, that would reduce human beings to the status of "private property".

    Family Planning in Reproductive Health

  25. The Ministry of Health of the Government of Zambia has recently circulated a document entitled "Family Planning in Reproductive Health". The document is an attempt to respond to the problems of high maternal and child mortality rates and the rate of population growth in Zambia. Genuine concern is expressed for the health and well-being of women and the Ministry of Health expresses its desire "to confirm and to consolidate those responsible family values that are deeply embedded in Zambian traditional culture". We wish to endorse this aspiration and to encourage its extension to the protection of the unborn child.
  26. The document further emphasises that "family life education in the schools needs to place the biological aspects of the sexual reproductive system within the wider framework of human sexuality, human relationships, responsible parenthood and individual human rights and their corresponding social responsibilities." We approve of this framework.
  27. The Church places great importance on responsible family planning. One meaning of the term "responsible" is, of course, in the use of methods, which do not endanger the existence of unborn human life. Hence, we approve of natural family planning methods including lactational amenorrhoea (breast feeding), which are both medically and morally acceptable. These methods are indeed "natural"; they are scientifically grounded and they have no adverse side effects.
  28. On the other hand, in accordance with Church teaching, we do not approve of the use of barrier methods (male and female condoms, diaphragms, and spermicides) which are "artificial" methods of birth control. We do note, however, that these methods are "strict" contraceptives. As noted above in section 12, they act therefore before conception occurs and hence do not have the effect of preventing the survival of human life.
  29. On the other hand, other methods of family planning mentioned in the Ministry of Health document (low-dose combined oral contraceptives, progestogen-only contraceptives, copper-bearing intrauterine contraceptive devices, and emergency contraception) can indeed act as abortifacients and are therefore not acceptable. It should be clear that the term "contraceptive" is being used in the document in a sense, which includes abortifacient action as well (see section 13 above). For this reason, it is very important that health providers should, while counselling their clients in a friendly and non-condemnatory manner, provide them with full information on the manner in which these methods work and provide them with alternatives to methods, which have possible abortifacient effects.

    Abortion is NOT the Solution

  30. The Ministry of Health in Zambia is assisted by a variety of organisations from abroad which strive to help solve some of the health problems experienced by our people. While we often appreciate their good will in wanting to improve women’s reproductive health and to take measures to deal with the rapid rate of population growth, nevertheless we must make it quite clear that we totally reject their promotion of information about, and access to methods of abortion as a means to solving these problems. Any solution that includes the killing of innocent and unprotected human life is contrary to Christian teaching, to the African emphasis on the value of human life, and to the Statement of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child as referred to in section 4 above. Such approaches treat the symptoms of the problem without tackling their root causes.
  31. Despite the goodwill of such bodies, they are promoting what Pope John Paul II has referred to as a "culture of death". Our disagreement with some aspects of the programme of action undertaken by the organisations mentioned above is not that they promote women’s reproductive health but rather that they seek to do so at the expense of the rights of the unborn to life. Any such programme of action must simultaneously promote both the reproductive health of women and the right to life of the unborn. In other words, the rights of women and the rights of unborn children must be defended together.

    Church’s Response to Abortion

  32. Our condemnation of abortion as Church leaders is quite clear. However, condemnation is not enough. To really "choose life", we must resolutely take positive steps. Therefore, we now need to clarify a programme for action that promotes a more sound moral climate in our society, works for greater social justice, and acts on behalf of those who find themselves pressurised to have an abortion. We have already committed ourselves to some elements of such a programme where we pledged ourselves to "even stronger support for families, beginning with local parish programmes such as marriage preparation and enrichment courses, marriage encounter, family life education, etc." We now wish to focus more specifically on the following points:
  33. Termination of Pregnancy Act: In our Churches and elsewhere, we will strive for the restriction of the Termination of Pregnancy Act by working to remove the conditions and pressures that brought this inhumane and immoral Act into existence in our Country (see section 7 above). We even hear certain voices being raised, which would advocate for the removal of the current legal conditions under which an abortion may be performed. We will firmly resist any steps taken to remove or relax these conditions.
  34. Lack of Information: We exhort our Catholic parents, priests and religious to inform themselves more fully on the extent of the problem of the termination of pregnancies in our Country. The breakdown of traditional family values and a more promiscuous and permissive attitude towards sexual encounters has resulted in the growing demand for abortions. As a result, our African respect for life has been diminished.
  35. Women need information not just about fetal development and alternative services but also about the procedures and complications of abortion. So much emphasis has been put on making abortion "safe and legal" that many women do not know that it is still a serious and risky operation. This is more so here in our Country where most of these so-called "legal" abortions are performed by practitioners who are often not specialists in gynaecology. Infection and haemorrhage are common, uterine (womb) perforations do occur and can be fatal if not detected early or could lead to unnecessary hysterectomies (removal of wombs) and/or similar major operations. Other common complications include incompetent cervix (scarring of the neck of the womb), which would lead to recurrent miscarriages of later "wanted" pregnancies or premature births. The infection earlier mentioned could lead to permanent damage of the fallopian tubes, which could in turn lead to ectopic pregnancies or to total sterility due to blocked tubes. Furthermore, little attention is given to the psychological harm inflicted on the woman by having an abortion, and the post-abortion syndrome of depression is not sufficiently acknowledged or treated.
  36. Education in Human Sexuality: Education in human sexuality is the prerogative of parents who may cooperate with the school system to ensure that this is done in accordance with proper Christian values and positive traditional values. Parents may not abdicate this responsibility and Government may not provide value neutral education in this matter. So-called "value-free non-judgmental sex education" has proven to be detrimental to all involved and can lead directly to experimentation which leads to greater use of contraceptives which in turn leads to more abortions.
  37. It is sadly regrettable that the sexual act between male and female has become so trivialised for many that it can seem to be like any other human act. We bemoan the fact that the shame traditionally attached to this act outside of marriage is being so rapidly eroded. It is precisely because the consequences of such an act are so uniquely special - namely, the possibility of procreating a new human life - that the sexual act has traditionally been protected by social norms and values in our society. There is no other human act that carries with it such a responsibility. And yet, it can be entered into in such a casual and frivolous manner. There is great need to alert young people to the extraordinary power for human reproduction that God has entrusted to them. Hence, young people need to be informed at an early age about the dignity of sexual relationships and taught the importance of sexual abstention before marriage. Consequently, education in human sexuality must aim at teaching the principle: "no sex before marriage and no sex outside of marriage".
  38. There is need to instil in our young girls in particular a sense of their own dignity and worth, an appreciation of the value of discipline and of the virtue of chastity, and a sense of pride in their capacity for motherhood. It is unfortunate that parents are frequently unwilling to give adequate sexual education to their children with the result that young people pick up this information from their peers outside of the framework of moral and religious values.
  39. Furthermore, young girls very often tend to conceal a pregnancy from their parents out of fear of the consequences. As a result of this, they either attempt an abortion by themselves, through a traditional practitioner or through a health centre. Parents and the wider society (e.g. schools) must take a more compassionate stance towards pregnant girls while in no way condoning promiscuity. This stance must be fair and life-enhancing.
  40. Young boys also need to develop a sense of respect and responsibility for their capacity to generate new life. Boys frequently perceive girls as mere objects for pleasure and abuse the meaning of "love" in order to obtain the satisfaction of their desires. Due to lack of appropriate sexual education, they can consider the act of conception as mainly the outcome of the girl’s activity for which she alone is responsible. Instead of feeling a sense of coresponsibility for the protection and care of the conceptus, they rather blame the girl afterwards for being irresponsible if she does not have an abortion. This attitude is not uncommon among men also.
  41. The Christian Family: The acceptance of abortion strikes at the very core of the Christian family, which is rooted in the protection and care of the unborn. In our five-year programme of spiritual renewal, and in accordance with the African Synod’s declaration of the Church as "God’s Family", we have dedicated the year 1997 to the theme of "The Caring Family" and 1998 to the theme of "The African Family". We emphasise here the importance of the value of motherhood and the family which are being threatened by the promotion of abortion.
  42. Pornography: We deplore the manner in which the moral standards of our youth in particular are being adversely affected by the portrayal through the visual media of declining moral standards in other parts of the world. We also note that the portrayal of violence and of the domination over women by men in books and on the screen cannot be dissociated from an increase in the sexual exploitation of women. We therefore call upon Government to exercise greater control over the availability of pornographic material in the Country.
  43. The Crisis of AIDS: In view of the devastating effect which HIV/AIDS is having upon the men and women of our Country, any programme on sexual education must include a direct focus on this tragic dimension. We have already expressed our grave concern over this issue and our compassion for those who are, and have been affected by it. We wish now to renew our commitment to the struggle against this problem. We believe that the most effective and lasting solution to the spread of HIV/AIDS is to be found in a change of moral behaviour and not in the indiscriminate distribution of condoms. The virtues of chastity and fidelity to one’s life partner need to be far more highly appreciated and actively promoted.
  44. Training of Health Providers: There is need for greater emphasis on the training of "health-service providers" in health centres so that they may encourage women with "unwanted" pregnancies to keep their babies. In order to do this, they need to be able to offer realistic alternatives to abortion. Women need to be given some assurance that their future will not be totally jeopardized by carrying their pregnancies to term. We can learn from the experience of "home based care" programmes with their positive approach involving local people trained in appropriate skills and attitudes.
  45. Support groups: Small Christian Communities need to establish support groups to help girls with "unwanted" pregnancies to keep their babies. There is also need to encourage the development of peer support groups among girls and boys in both parishes and schools so that they may receive the moral strength and courage to avoid sex before marriage.
  46. Justice: We need to work for greater justice and equality for women in our society. It is not normal or healthy for a woman to want the death of her own child. If she does, then that can often be a clear sign that an injustice has been done against her. There should not be a conflict between women and unborn children. The rights of both (i.e. the inalienable right of the conceptus to life and the reproductive rights of women) must be asserted together.

    Conclusion

  47. Catholic leaders are sometimes accused of lacking understanding and compassion for those who find themselves in situations of anguish and distress such as those who might seek an abortion. But in our careful consideration here of the circumstances, which surround the termination of pregnancies in our Country, we have made it abundantly clear that we feel a sense of deep compassion for those women and young girls who are somehow driven to seek an abortion. We firmly believe that women would not normally seek the death of their own unborn children unless they felt somehow trapped in situations, which they neither intended nor desired. Our purpose in this letter, therefore, has not been to condemn but rather to express our sensitivity and compassion for those who feel that they have no real choice but to destroy unborn human life.
  48. At the same time, compassion that ignores truth and justice cannot be faithful to the teaching of Christ who is "the Way, the Truth and the Life" (John 14:6) and who came among us so that we might "have life and have it to the full" (John 10:10). Compassion that results in the destruction and death of unborn human life is false compassion. It can only result in the long term in a culture, which has a diminished sense of the value of human life itself. Such a culture is one that manifests a disregard for life in so many different ways of violence, exploitation, prejudice, corruption, ignoring of the poor and sick, and so forth. Indeed, false compassion breeds a mentality, which already bears the seeds of a culture of death rather than a culture of life.
  49. That is why we must therefore continue to bear witness to truth and to challenge injustices in our society in every form. We therefore renew our commitment, stated frequently in our teachings and witnessed to actively in our programmes, to strive to overcome the unjust and dehumanising poverty in our Country which is itself a sign of the culture of death. And we place particular emphasis here on the work for justice that rejects the exploitation of women and unborn children. We must continue to fight for the greater realisation in our society of the "kingdom of truth, of justice, of love and of peace" for which Christ has inspired us to struggle. Keeping a clear focus on the inviolability and sacredness of human life is an absolutely essential ingredient of the realisation of the reign of God among us.
  50. The acceptance of abortion can never be a true solution to any human problem. God has given us a choice between life and death. In our total and unequivocal rejection of abortion, we choose life - and we urge all Catholics and all the people of Zambia to do the same.
  51. May this year’s Advent season enhance your love and respect for human life as we look forward to the celebration of the Birth of Christ; and may Almighty God bless you abundantly. Your humble servants, The Catholic Bishops of Zambia.

Your humble servants,

The Catholic Bishops of Zambia

  Bishop T-G Mpundu,   Bishop Chairman, ZEC   Bishop P. Lungu, SJ,   Bishop Vice-Chairman, ZEC   Archbishop M. Mazombwe,   Archbishop of LUSAKA   Archbishop J. Spaita,   Archbishop of KASAMA   Archbishop A. Mung’andu,   Archbishop Emeritus, LUSAKA   Archbishop A. Kozlowiecki, SJ,   Archbishop Emeritus, LUSAKA   Bishop D. De Jong,   Bishop of NDOLA   Bishop A. Chisha,   Bishop of MANSA   Bishop N. O’Regan, SMA,   Bishop of SOLWEZI   Bishop R. Mpezele,   Bishop of LIVINGSTONE   Bishop P. Duffy, OMI,   Bishop of MONGU